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줫Ƥ򤹤뤿ˡunix ưδܤˤĤ.

Unix ưƤȤ

unix Ȥ OS ưƤȤȤϡ桼ФƤޤޤľܤ˱򤹤ǤϤʤ.
ޤޤʱ֥ӥפ뤿ˡظǾưƤ륽եȥäꡤ׵˱ƥեȥưŪΩ夬äꡤŪ˵ưꤹ륽եȥ.

˾̤ΥӥԤ碌뤿ǤϤʤưθΨ̤⥻ƥ̤⤳եȥκߤΤ뤳ȤɬפǤ.
ϤּưŪ˵ư륽եȥפˤĤƳؤ.

ưƤ륽եȥ

unix ˸¤餺٤εϤ OS ǤϤޤޤʥӥ󶡤뤿˾ưƤ륽եȥ¸ߤ.

ޤϺưƤ륽եȥ򸫤Ƥߤ

ps Ȥޥɤޤϴ.

 jman ps

 man ps

ȤơޤϤΥޥɤˤĤĴ٤褦. ʤȤʤ狼äˤʤä顤θ塤

 ps -axu | less

ȤƤߤ褦. ƤΥץ. ٤ʸɽڤƤޤɤɤʤȤϡ

 ps -axuww | less

ʤɤȤФ褤.

ˡºݤưƤơΥץɤ줯餤٤򤫤ƤΤĴ٤Ƥߤ褦.
Ūˤ top ȤޥɤŬƤ. ޥ˥奢ҤƤ顤ºݤ

 top

ȤƤߤ褦. ץξưŪˤߤġcpu ξʤɤߤ뤳Ȥ狼.

ˡ͡ʥե򳫤Ƥץξߤ뤿Υޥɡlsof ȤäƤߤ褦.
lsof ϥ󥹥ȡ뤵Ƥʤ⤷ʤ. ξϡports 餵äȥ󥹥ȡ뤷Ƥ.
(󥹥ȡ뤬ɬפʤХ󥹥ȡ뤷Ƥ)ޤϥޥ˥奢Ҥ줫顤

 lsof | less

ȤƤߤ褦. ֤褯狼ʤ顤٤

lsof -i4
lsof -i4 -P

ȤƤߤ褦. ȥͥåȥ port ξ(Ԥޤ)Τ뤳ȤǤ.
ϥͥåȥӥ򤹤ݤ˽פʾǤꡤΤ lsof Ͻ롥

½

notes.png
Υޥ缡Ƥߤ褦
ޤ⤷󥹥ȡ뤵ƤʤСlsof ports Ȥäƥ󥹥ȡ뤷褦

kernel

Unix OS ΤΡˤǤ륽եȥ̾ kernel ȸƤФ졤ϾưƤ.
kernel ܤϤ OS ưեȥȡƥեȥ˻(ꡤϡɥǥ I/O )󶡤뤳Ȥˤ.
ŪˤϡCPU ʤɤΥϡɥδŪ桤ξǤŪʻ(ۥʤ)ι, ƥեȥؤλ񸻳*1ʤɤǤ, unix OS Υեȥǡ֤äȤפʥեȥΰġפǤ.

kernel kernel ȹ⥸塼ϸߤ FreeBSD Ǥ /boot/kernel ǥ쥯ȥˤ.

kernel ưѤˤϡѤˡ kernel Ȥ򥳥ѥ뤷ƺľˡ*2.
ܤ񤯤Ȱʲ̤Ǥ롥

  • ե񤭴ƤƵư(̤ϱ³Ū)
    ե /boot/loader.conf Ǥ롥Ŭ񤭴ƤƤ()ưȡ˱褦
    եΥǥե /boot/defaults/loader.conf ˤΤǤߤƤߤ褦(򤤤ȡ OS Τ褦˵ư˲ФȤǤ).
  • ư˼ưѤ(εưΤߤ̵̤)
    ֡Ȼˡ(loader)ˡäơפǼưѤȤˡ.
    θ̤ϰŪǤ뤬ְ㤨ƵưʤȤ䡤ͥäޤưʤʤɤȤˤϽפʼʤ*3.
    ŪˤϡޥươưΥ˥塼
    01.png
    Ф˥ڡ򲡤ƤäƤ顤 6 򲡤.
    02.png
    ȤץץȤǤƥ줿Ȥ狼.
    ξǤ ? 򲡤лȤ륳ޥɤФ. Ǻä顤autoboot Ȥ̤̾굯ưΤǤȤ.
    ʤߤˡǻȤ륳ޥɤϡ(FreeBSD ̤ưƤȤ) jman loader ȤХޥ˥奢뤬Ҥ.
  • ̾ưѤ
    • sysctl Ȥ. ޤϥޥ˥奢ñɤ⤦. 줫顤(ߤʤʤΤ) root
       sysctl -a -h | less
      ʤɤȤƤߤ褦. ǫ˸ƤȡʤȤʤ狼ܤ⤢.
      ʤߤˡ񤭴Ƥߤ sysctl ѿ̾= ǽ񤭴ǽƤʤϤޤꤪᤷʤ(^-^)
  • ͥ⥸塼Υ,ɤԤ. ޥɤ kldload kldunload . ǥХɥ饤Ф򤢤줳Ѥʤɤˤäˤʤ.
    2ޥɤΥޥ˥奢Ҥ褽򤷤Ƥ.
    üʥϡɥȤݤʤɤˤϤäˤʤ.
  • ͥ򥳥ѥ뤷ƺäƤޤ(ʤ٤ޥǽ)
    ̤ϡ/usr/src/sys/i386/conf ˤ GENERIC ե򥳥ԡƽ񤭴Ƥ饳ѥ뤷ľȤƧ.
    ˤǽ񤭤ʤΤǡFreeBSD θŪǤ ϥɥ֥å(FreeBSDͥΥե졼) Ҳ𤷤Ƥ.
    μˡFreeBSD Ρǽפ礭Ѥ뤳ȤǤΤǡޥӤˤäƤϥͥκƥѥƤ褤.

½

notes.png 1ĤΥץȤκ̡פ륫ͥͤʲμѤƤߤ褦

  1. ޤɤ줯餤ߤƤߤ롥
    ޤѡ桼ˤʤäƤ顤
     unlimit -h
    Ȥơ(⤷äƤʤ)Ƽ¤򥫡ͥθ³ͤޤdzƤ
    ơ
     limit -h
    Ȥޥɤ¹ԤȡΤ褦˥ץָ߻ȤƼ꥽礭פɽ*4
     cputime      unlimited
     filesize     unlimited
     datasize     524288 kbytes  ܤΤϥ
     stacksize    65536 kbytes
     coredumpsize unlimited
     memoryuse    unlimited
     vmemoryuse   unlimited
     descriptors  7207
     memorylocked unlimited
     maxproc      3603
     sbsize       unlimited
     swapsize     unlimited
    ȡܤƤץȤκ( datasize )512MB ¤Ƥ뤳Ȥʬ*5
  2. ¤ƤͤǧƤ
    ¤ϡθ³Ƥ륫ͥѿ kern.maxdsiz ȤΤǤ(ڥաǸ "e" ̵)
    ǧ뤿ˡ
     sysctl -a -h | grep maxdsiz
    ȤƤߤ褦οθ³ͤФƤΤǡǼ
  3. ưѹƤߤ褦
    ¤˸äƤȡѿ OS ưѹǤʤ*6
    ǤˤäƤߤ褦
     sysctl kern.maxdsiz="256M"
    ȤƤߤ褦
     sysctl: oid 'kern.maxdsiz' is a read only tunable
     sysctl: Tunable values are set in /boot/loader.conf
    Ȥ褦ˡ֤ѿɤळȤǤʤ补/boot/loader.conf ꤵƤפȸ롥
  4. ư˼ưѹƤߤ(Ūѹ)
    ޥƵư˽񤤤ǥ(loader)äƤߤ褦.
    ơOK ȤץץȤФƤ֤ǡ
     set kern.maxdsiz="256M"
     boot
    ȤƤߤ褦(Τ˾ͤˤƤ)ƵưƤ顤limit -h ȤƤߤơ
     cputime      unlimited
     filesize     unlimited
     datasize     262144 kbytes  줬ưꤷͤˤʤäƤ!
     stacksize    65536 kbytes
     coredumpsize unlimited
     memoryuse    unlimited
     vmemoryuse   unlimited
     descriptors  7207
     memorylocked unlimited
     maxproc      3603
     sbsize       unlimited
     swapsize     unlimited
    datasize ꤷͤˤʤäƤ뤳Ȥǧ褦
  5. ֡Ȥ, Ūʼư꤬ä뤳Ȥǧ褦
    ֡ȤƤߤơưƤ limit -h Ȥơdatasize ǽͤäƤ뤳Ȥǧ褦
  6. ե񤭴ơƵưƤߤ褦
    /boot/loader.conf ˼1Ԥ񤭲ä(٤Ͼ礭ˤƤߤ)*7
     kern.maxdsiz="640M"
    񤭴顤Ƶươlimit -h ȡ
     cputime      unlimited
     filesize     unlimited
     datasize     655360 kbytes 줬 /boot/loader.conf ꤷͤˤʤäƤ!
     stacksize    65536 kbytes
     coredumpsize unlimited
     memoryuse    unlimited
     vmemoryuse   unlimited
     descriptors  7207
     memorylocked unlimited
     maxproc      3603
     sbsize       unlimited
     swapsize     unlimited
    Ȥ褦ˡΤѹƤ뤳Ȥ狼롥

ʤߤˡͤϡְפȡǽפΥХ󥹤ѤΤʤΤǡޥӤ˱ĴƤȤˤʤ롥 FreeBSD ȤʤСѤƤΤ褤

notes.png sysctl įƤߤ롥

 sysctl -a -h | less

η̤įơʬʬ¬ǤʬʤõƤߤ褦

notes.png (ޤ) ˴Ƥߤ롥
(loader)äơlsmod Ȥơɤʥ⥸塼뤬ɤ߹ޤƤ뤫ߤƤߤ褦.
ճˤߤǤ狼Τ⤢Ϥ.
ޤheap ȤƤߤơλѾ򸫤Ƥߤ褦. Ѥʾ狼äƤ뵤

notes.png (ޤ) /boot/loader.conf ꤹȡ¾ OS Τ褦˵ưˡּʬѰդפɽ뤳ȤǤ롥jman loader.conf Ȥƥޥ˥奢򸫤Ⱦܺ٤Ϥ狼뤬򼨤Ƥޤ

  1. 1024x768 , 256βӥåȥޥå(bmp)Ѱ(fileץ)ơ/boot β֤Ƥ ̾ϤʤǤ褤㤨С open.bmp ȤƤ
  2. /boot/loader.conf ˼4Ԥ񤭤Ǥ
     splash_bmp_load="YES"
     vesa_load="YES"
     bitmap_load="YES"
     bitmap_name="/boot/open.bmp"  ʬѰդե̾
  3. reboot ơư˲̤˲ǤΤǧ褦

init

unix ǤƤΥץˤϡƤ鵯ưҤȤֿƻҴطפ.
ơunix OS ǡ֥ץפȤưռץ/ץƤΡֻġץץब init Ǥ.
̾ pid 1 Ǥ*8.

⤦äȺ٤⤹ȡunix Ǥ init ƤץϡֿƥץפäƤꡤƥץȤˤϤλҥץ̤ȤˤʤäƤ.
ǤΤǡƤΥץα󤤿Ƥˤ init ̤ȥƥब֡Ȥʤɡinit εưϥƥΤ礭ʱƶͿ.
init ϵư塤/etc/rc, /etc/rc.subr, /etc/rc.conf ʤɤɤߡ˽äƼ /etc/rc.d/ʲˤ뤵ޤޤ daemon ưȤή͡ʥեȥư.
ܤϡinit Υޥ˥奢򻲾Ȥ줿.

½

notes.png init Ĵ٤Ƥߤ褦

ޤps -axu | less Ȥäơinit Τ pid 1 ưƤΤǧ褦.

init Υޥ˥奢ɤȥͥΥƥ٥ˤĤƤεҤ. ϡɥǥ񤭴ʤʤ⡼ɤʤɡƥ٥뤬⤤⡼ɤεҤؤΤɤǤ
ޤ sysctl νϤǤΤϤɤĴ٤(ޥ˥奢褯ɤफsysctl -a -h η̤椫㤨 secure ȤʸޤǤȤ grep Ф褤)
ơͤɤʤäƤ뤫Ĵ٤.

ޤinit Υޥ˥奢ɤȡkill ۤۤ 1 ˤĤƤĤ⤬ܤäƤ.
򤷤ǡѡ桼ˤʤäƤ

 kill -INT 1

ԤäƤߤ.

Daemon

ʤ餫Υӥ󶡤뤿˥Хå饦ɤǾưƤ(⤷ϸƤӽФ줿¨ư)եȥϰ̤ daemon (󡤥ǡ)*9ȸƤФ.
٤ unix DzǤΤ daemon ߤʬ.
ޤϤɤ daemon ưƤΤ̾ǤߤƤߤ褦.

½

notes.png ps, top, lsof ˤĤƤ٤ƤߤơߤɤΤ褦ʥեȥ(daemon)ưƤơɤԤפ򤷤Ƥ뤫¬Ƥߤ.

ӥ׵᤬äȤ˵ư륽եȥ

˥Хå饦ɤǥեȤưƤ뤳ȤˤϼΤ褦ȷ.

  • ȿǤ()
  • CPU 򤽤ʤ˾񤹤(

ǡ֤ޤɬפʻ뤬ä˿®ʥ쥹ݥ󥹤ʤȤ褤פȤӥˤĤƤϡָƤФƤ鵯ưפȤ褦ꤷƤ̵̤ʤ.
Ӥ˻ȤΤ֥ѥС"inetd" *10Ǥ.
inetd Ω夲ƤСɬפ˱ƸƤФ줿եȥư³ƤΤ.
inetd ϤΡפ椨˥ƥŪʴˤ⤿餷䤹ᡤǶϥǥեȤǤưƤʤȤ¿ΤǡưݤˤŪꤷʤȤʤȤդ褦.

inetd Ȥˤ

inetd Ȥˤϡ

  1. /etc/inetd.conf , ָƤФ줿Ω夬륽եȥפ򤹤.
  2. inetd ⤽Ω夬äƤʤʤΩ夲.
  3. ³ɬפʥեȤξϡ³ĤФƤ.

ȤʳƧФ褤.
ʲ褦.

inetd Ȥˤ: /etc/inetd.conf ν񤭴

/etc/inetd.conf 򸫤ȼ㤬񤫤쥳ȥȤƤΤǡ褽Ϥ狼.
7ܤƤ礶äѤ˽Ҥ٤ȡ

  1. ӥ̾: /etc/services ˽񤫤ƤΤȰפʤȤʤ. inetd services ξȤ.
  2. åȥ: ̾ TCP ʤ stream, UDP ʤ dgram .
  3. ץȥ: ̾ TCP UDP . TCP Ϥ򤹤̿ˡUDP ϷҤ̿˸Ƥ뤾.
  4. ³Ƥ inetd εư: ̾ TCP ʤ nowait UDP ʤ wait . nowait ˤ nowait/5 ʤɤȤƱ³(㤨Фξ 5ޤǤ)¤Ǥ.
  5. Ω夲 deamon μ¹Ը: ƥͤüʥ桼θ¤ˤ뤳ȤǶήԤ.Ȥꤢ root ˤƤХƥʳϤޤ굯ʤ
  6. Ω夲 deamon path: եȤκ߽. internal ȤΤ inetd Ȥ󶡤Ǥ륵ӥ.
  7. Ω夲 deamon Υޥ: ޥɥ饤󥪥ץʤ󤫤񤱤.

ȤʤäƤ.

ʤ inetd ưƤ֤ /etc/inetd.conf 񤭴ϡ

 kill -HUP (inetd pid)

Ȥ inetd.conf ɤľƤ.

inetd Ȥˤ: inetd Ω夲

ưˤĤư褦ˤƤˤϡ /etc/rc.conf

 inetd_enable="YES"

Ƚ񤤤ƤФ褤.

inetd Ȥˤ: ³

ƥкȤơTCP wrappers ˤ볰Ρ³ġ٤ FreeBSD ˤƳƤ.
inetd ϥǥեȤǤϤ³٤Ѥ(Ѥʤ褦ˤǤ).

ŪˤϡεĤɤʤäƤ뤫 /etc/hosts.allow ǵҤ.
Ҥϸʬ뤬

 ץ̾ : ³Ƥޥ̾ : /Ե

Ȥ褦ˤʤäƤꡤιԤֳ뤫ɤפĴ٤Ƥ褦ˤʤäƤ.
ơֺǽ˳פͭˤʤȤߤ(ܤ "jman hosts_access" Ȥƥޥ˥奢򻲾Ȥ).

֤󡤳νǤϺǽ

 ALL : ALL : allow

Ƚ񤤤Ƥ顤ޤϤʤǤ.
ξ硤Ǥ̵¤³뤳ȤˤʤΤǡ׻ǤʤФǤդ٤ΰĤǤ.

½

notes.png ͥåȥ³ơֺ̾ʹƤץӥ¸Ƥߤ褦(^-^)
ˤϡӥ׵ᤵ줿̾ϤץץΩ夲ɤ.
ʲäƤߤ褦

  1. ӥԤץǧ롥
    ץˤ fortune ȤΤΤƤΤǡ줬ޥɤȤƤ󥹥ȡ뤵Ƥ뤫å(fortune ȥޥɤǤäƤߤФ褤)
    󥹥ȡ뤵ƤʤСsysinstall Configure Distributions gamesǥ󥹥ȡ뤻补
    ơȤ褦ˤʤä顤
    03.png
    Τ褦ˡФ줿ʸ? ϤϤ.
  2. /etc/inetd.conf Խ롥
     qotd stream tcp nowait root /usr/games/fortune fortune
    ( 7. ܴ֤ϥ֤Ƕڤ)
    Ƚ񤭲äФ褤֤Ƕڤ뤫˥ڡǶڤäꤷʤ褦ˡ
  3. inetd ư褦 /etc/rc.conf 1ɲäơƵư(ιܤ򸫤)
    Τ inetd ưƤ뤫
     lsof -i4 -P
    ȤơꤷȤ port 17 inetd ʹΩƤƤ뤳Ȥǧ褦.
  4. ơºݤ˥ͥåȥۤ inetd -> fortune ӤƤ뤫ߤƤߤ褦
    ޤ
     telnet localhost 17
    ȼʬΥޥ³Ƥߤơ̾Ϥ뤫.
    ˡʤȤ⼫ʬǤʤ¾ͤΥޥФƱͤ
    telnet (ޥ̾) 17
    Ȥ
    04.png
    Τ褦ˤ̾Ϥ뤫.
  5. ³¤򤷤Ƥߤ褦
    /etc/hosts.allow ALL : ALL : allow
     ALL : localhost : allow
     fortune : ALL : deny
    ȤԤ񤭹Ǥ(fortune ǤϤʤ qotd Ƚ񤭤ˤʤ뤬ǤϤʤΤդ뤳)Τ褦ˤ inetd öߤơư("kill -HUP (inetd pid)" Ǥɤǰΰ).
    Ūˤϡ
     /etc/rc.d/inetd restart
    ȤФ褤.
    ơʬΥޥ³Ƥߤ̾Ϥ뤳ȡ¾Υޥ󤫤³äƳΤ˥ӥϼʤȤǧ.

Ū˵ư륽եȥ

˽Ҥ٤֤ĤưƤסָƤФ줿ư褦ԵƤפȤեȥ¾ˡŪưץեȥ.
ƥĴ update ʤɡŪ˼¹ԤɤΤ.

ŪʻȤߤȤƤ inetd ɤƤꡤŪˤΥեȤư "cron" daemon , cron ˽ä͡ʥեȥư褦ˤʤäƤ.

cron

ư cron ϰʬܳФᡤ٤եåƤ˽äƾˤեȥư褦ˤʤäƤ.
äơե񤭴ˤη̤ȿǤ뤿̤ɬפʤĤϤǤʤ⤢褦(Ĥޤ, ե񤭴äѤ "kill -HUP (cron pid)" Ȥۤ褤).

cron ˺Ȥ򤵤뤿եϰ̤ crontab ȸƤФ졤Τ褦ब.

  1. /var/cron/tabs/桼̾ ľܥǥǤ餺ˡ"crontab -e" ȥޥɤưԽ.
    Υޥ "crontab" (Ʊ䤹crontab Ȥޥɤ⤢Τ)ˤĤƤ "jman crontab" ǥޥ˥奢ɤळȤǤ.
    ޤեˤĤƤ(/etc/crontab ɤץˤʤ.桼̾(6).) "jman 5 crontab" Ȥȥޥ˥奢뤬Ҥ.
    Υ桼 cron μ¹Ը¤ʤȤե˽񤤤Ƥ¹ԤʤΤդ
    äѤˤϡ/var/cron/allow եˤΥ桼̾񤤤Ƥꡤ/var/cron/deny եˤΥ桼̵̾Ф褤.
  2. /etc/crontab ƥ. ľܥǥԽ. ƥΥå䡤礭ʤäեβʤɡŪʻŻ˻Ȥ롥

½

notes.png cron ȤäƤߤ褦.

ޤ̾桼Ǥ cron Ȥ褦ˡ/var/cron/allow ꤻ(Υե뤬ʤϺ).
Ūˤϡ桼̾Τߤ񤤤Ԥ /var/cron/allow ˤФ褤(ιԤ˥ڡ䥿֤ʤɡ桼̾ʳʸäƤƤϤʤ).

̾桼 cron ȤäƤߤ褦.

 crontab -e

ȤơŬƤϿƤߤȤȤ. 㤨С

 */1 * * * * tail /var/log/messages >> Ŭʥե̾

(6. ܴ֤ϥ֤Ƕڤ. Ǹι "tail ... " "tail" ޥɤȤäޥʸʤΤǡȤǴ֤ϥڡǶڤꡤ֤Ȥʤ!!)
ʤɤϿƤСmessages κǸ 10Ԥ 1ʬɲä쵭Ͽ뤳Ȥˤʤ.
ϿǤɤ

 crontab -l

ȤФ狼.

ǡºݤưƤ뤫ɤϡ(root) /var/log/cron ɤ cron ΥʬΤȽǤ.
ޤʤϡߤϿ꤬ʤ褯ߤ褦.
ޤϿͭˤʤäƤʤȤ褦ʾϡcron Ф kill -HUP 򤫤褦.

warning.png ޤäȤϺƤ crontab -e ʤɤȤäϿ򳰤, ǰΰ٤ cron Ф kill -HUP 򤫤Ƥ.

periodic

Ū˹Ԥ륷ƥȤΤäŵŪʤΤ /etc/periodic ʲˤ졤periodic ޥɤư.
periodic ޥɤ cron ǤФ褦ˤʤäƤ(/etc/crontab periodic ƤǤʬϤ).
periodic ޥɤ /etc/periodic.conf Ǥʤ(äѤä򤷤ƤʤϤΥեϤʤƤ褤).
Υǥեͤ /etc/defaults/periodic.conf ˽񤫤Ƥ.

newsyslog

newsyslog cron ƤӽФ뤳ȤꤷƤ륽եȥǡ͡ʥեȥΥեԤΤǤ.
ŪˤϡߤΥե̾Ѥ¸ơեѰդȤԤ.
/etc/newsyslog.conf ǹԤ.
Ŭڤ˹ԤʤäƤʤȡե뤬礭ʤꤹƥϡɥǥ줿ꤹ.

½

notes.png /etc/newsyslog.conf ɤǡλǤɤΤ褦ʥե뤬ɤΤ褦Ƥ뤫Ĵ٤.

ݡ

ԤäȤˤĤ furihata ä cmc.osaka-u.ac.jp ˥᡼𤻤.
Ƽ

  1. °(ز)
  2. ֹ
  3. ǯ
  4. ̾
  5. οΥݡ(θȤˤĤƵŤ)

񤯤Τ˺ʤ褦.
ݡȤϤַפ鳰ɤǤ館ʤȤ⤢롥ϳ餷Τʤ褦դ褦

about Icons, ClipArts

Some icons in this page are downloadable at ICONFINDER.

The "note" icon notes.png designed by Marco Martin is distributed with the LGPL licence,
the "warning" icon warning.png designed by Alexandre Moore with the GPL licence
and the "triangle" icon JNorth_arrow-right-sm.png designed by Joseph North is distributed with the Creative Commons (Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported) licence.

Some clip arts used in this page are downloadable at Open Clip Art Library.
We deeply appreciate their superb works. With licence, they describe that "the actual clipart content on open clipart library is Public domain" in the web.


*1 ޥCPUʤɤλ񸻤֤˳ľȤǼ¸
*2 ʤ OS ˤΤΤʬǺľȤǤΤ
*3 ΤȤϡloader boot ޥɤǸŤͥ뤫鵯ưФ褤. 󡤸ŤͥХååפƤʤФޤǤ
*4 ܺ٤ jman csh Ȥ limit ʬɤ⤦
*5 ΥǥեͤϷ빽
*6 ִ֤ʤפ
*7 ޤ礭ͤꤹȥ֡ȤʤʤΤ
*8 nest init ư뤳ȤǽʴĶ¸ߤ. ܤ jman jail ʤɤȤƤߤ.
*9 daemon ϼȤꥷä˽ФƤȾȾͤΤȤǡ(demon)ǤϤʤȤդ. ֤꤬㤦. ޤꥫͤǤ褯򤹤櫓. ʤBSD unix Ǥ daemon ϥޥåȤȤƤνפ䤬. ܤ http://www.freebsd.org/ja/copyright/daemon.html 򸫤.
*10 Τʤ? ʤФޥ˥奢ߤ褦. ޥ˥奢򤹤뤳Ȥ unix Ǥϡ֤褤ȡפȤ

źեե: file02.png 113 [ܺ] file01.png 94 [ܺ] fileterminal-04.jpg 62 [ܺ] filesakura.bmp 139 [ܺ] fileterminal-02.jpg 318 [ܺ] fileterminal-03.jpg 57 [ܺ] fileterminal-01.jpg 59 [ܺ] file04.png 85 [ܺ] file03.png 600 [ܺ]